Term Definition
Bond A loan in the form of a security, usually issued by a government or company, which normally pays a fixed rate of interest over a given time period, at the end of which the initial amount borrowed is repaid.
Emerging economy or market Economies in the process of rapid growth and increasing industrialisation. Investments in emerging markets are generally considered to be riskier than those in developed markets.
Equities Shares of ownership in a company.
Inflation The rate of increase in the cost of living. Inflation is usually quoted as an annual percentage, comparing the average price this month with the same month a year earlier.
Macroeconomic Refers to the performance and behaviour of an economy at the regional or national level. Macroeconomic factors such as economic output, unemployment, inflation and investment are key indicators of economic performance. Sometimes abbreviated to 'macro'.
Monetary tightening When central banks raise interest rates or sell securities on the open market to decrease the money in circulation.
Valuation metrics Measures used for determining the current worth of an asset or company.
Volatility The degree to which a given security, fund, or index rapidly changes. It is calculated as the degree of deviation from the norm for that type of investment over a given time period. The higher the volatility, the riskier the security tends to be.